(1) The pressure fluctuations: Many air operated systems or equipment are being used in a very inconsistent manner or are faulty. This results in wastage of compressed air
(2) Higher compressor capacity: If the compressors are sized to excessive capacity than is needed, it results in higher operating and maintenance costs. Many plants buy compressors taking into account peak performance + possible leakages + some additional capacity. This sounds fine, but in the background, they are already preparing for inefficiency due to leakages.
(3) Excess load conditions: At times, the load is increased beyond the actual capacity of the plant. This undoubtedly results in increased maintenance costs as well a reduced life of equipment
(4) Wet air: When the compressed air is being distributed, the moisture seeps in through leakages.